Music Education, Professional Training, Further Education
Music education, professional music training and further training are available at a variety of institutions and establishments. In addition to government education and training institutions, there are also numerous training establishments run by societies, associations and other organisations, by the church and on a private basis.
These institutions are subsumed below in a main section that is subdivided according to the education and training responsibilities of the institutes. Grouping institutions under appropriate headings was made difficult by the same terms often being used to describe very different organisations and conversely, the same or similar organisations often using different terms. The distinctions made between general, pre-professional and professional education and training are often blurred. The establishments listed under the respective headings are grouped according to federal states in line with the federal structure of the education system.
Under the heading Primary and Secondary Schools Specialising in Music, schools are listed that offer more music tuition than on the timetables of the federal state in question (timetable for schools with extended music tuition) or are schools that offer instrumental or vocal tuition on the grounds of a special commitment by that school in the music education area (subject to information being supplied).
More information on the scope of extended tuition can be found either in the introductory comments on the types of schools (in the federal states View only) or in the passage on extended tuition (ERW) for the individual schools. The number of hours of music tuition per week is indicated in each case; instrument lessons and obligatory attendance in study groups are normally noted separately. The schools listed usually have a broad selection of courses in ensemble music (choir, orchestra, chamber music etc) which cannot be fully listed.
In the sixth forms at grammar school and the upper secondary level of comprehensive schools, music can be generally be selected as an advanced (usually 5-6 lessons per week) or standard course (usually 2-3 lessons per week). Whether these courses take place or not is, however, dependent on student interest and on staffing and organisational factors. Special schools cannot be named since the range often varies from year to year.
Many other schools with music taught as part of the regular curriculum have a lively, intensive music culture provided by additional options and study groups. This includes Waldorf Schools and Montessori schools and also private boarding schools such as the Christophurus and Hermann Lietz schools where studying and playing music and aesthetic education play an important role. There is not sufficient space to list all these schools and the selection shown here is not an indication of rating.
There is an enormous variety of music education and music culture available outside the scope of schools of general education. The Music Schools Association (VdM) sub-section documents this key area in the music education field. In addition to the music schools organised in the VdM, there are numerous other music schools and institutions where music is taught which differ vastly as to their conceptional focus, the number of courses they offer, the number of teaching staff they employ and the bodies that run them. They include music schools that are part of the National Association of German Private Schools of Music, Art Colleges that also teach music, specialised training institutes (i.e. for jazz, rock and pop, for individual instruments or groups of instruments) or education establishments that are closely linked to companies in the music industry. The establishments listed here are only a selection, because lack of data sources makes comprehensive researching impractical and a multiplicity of designations and different organisational forms hinders systematic coverage. Also not documented are lessons given by private music teachers, who are very important for instrumental and vocal training, and the teaching work carried out by instrumental and vocal amateur music groups and the music-related activities of adult education centres. The areas not listed here are included in the associations contained in the data base (see under Systematic Search, particularly the items “Amateur Music” and “Music Education and Professional Training”).
Training establishments for the music professions are institutions active in the area of artistic, academic and pedagogic training and in further specialised fields relevant to the music profession. The Studienführer Musikstudium in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland and in many cases the websites of the institutes involved give an overview of the staff employed according to their subject areas; we have thus dispensed with a detailed listing of teaching staff. There is also just a general reference to the numerous ensembles attached to the teaching establishments (choirs, orchestras, chamber music groups, bands, special ensembles for early and contemporary music, etc) that are very important for the acquisition of practical orchestral and ensemble practice and which have the side-effect of contributing to the music culture of the regions.
The Bachelor and Master degrees introduced as a result of the Bologna process are indicated in those cases where the corresponding study courses have been accredited. Masters degree music courses are included as accredited where this would normally be required and Bachelor accreditation has already been obtained. Since adaptation of study courses to the new, internationally comparable qualifications will take some years, the present description can only be a snapshot. Information on current study courses offered can be found, inter alia, on the website of the German Rectors Conference under www.hochschulkompass.de
The sub-section listing conservatories, academies, church music schools and colleges pays particular attention to the institutes that are represented in national working groups: the Working Group of German Music Academies and Conservatories, Conference of the Heads of Church and State Training Institutes for Church Music and of the State Church Music Directors in the Protestant Church, the Conference of the Heads of the Catholic Church Music Training Institutes in Germany. In the church music sector, establishments are included that restrict themselves to training qualified church musicians on a semi-professional basis as organists or choirmasters.
The sub-section on colleges of music describes the institutes grouped together in the Rectors Conference of Music Colleges plus the Nürnberg-Augsburg College of Music founded in 1998. Further institutes with the status of college of music are resident at the Universities of Mainz and Münster (see sub-section on universities, colleges of education, specialised colleges of higher education); Colleges of Church Music are listed in the relevant sub-section. The colleges of music offer a broad spectrum of artistic, pedagogic and academic courses which are described here in a systematised form. Furthermore, many colleges of music and specialised academies and conservatories have in recent years developed additional courses, some in the form of new study programmes and subjects, some as courses, compact seminars and postgraduate modules, which are also included in the sub-section (provided they exist as permanent options).
The sub-section on universities, colleges of education and specialised colleges of higher education lists higher education establishments with institutes or seminars for musicology, music pedagogics and other relevant areas. In addition to the study options mentioned here, musicology can usually also be studied as a subsidiary subject as part of other courses. Music pedagogics is offered as a major or subsidiary subject, for instance, in study courses for a diploma in education. The teaching staff listed are generally restricted to full time teachers; functions involving directorship or executive duties are indicated provided they are not organised on a rotational basis within the institution.
Specialised training establishments for the music professions that are state or privately run are listed in the following outline including the Vocational Training School for Music in Bavaria. There are numerous private institutes which – provided they offer a basic form of training – are included here and which are particularly active in the fields of popular music, music theatre and music and culture management and exist parallel to the training offered by colleges of music, conservatories and specialised academies. Training facilities run by private vocal and operatic studios or independent music teachers in the instrumental and vocal sector are generally not covered.
Advanced and further training for the professional and amateur musical professions is provided by a great number of bodies with a great variety of subjects and organisational forms. In the sphere of amateur music in particular, training and advanced training are difficult to distinguish. State-run advanced training for teachers at general education establishments, for which the federal states have academies and institutes of their own, usually includes courses for music teachers. Some of these institutes have responsibility for curriculum research and development. Advanced music training for pedagogic and artistic staff in the field of non-school youth and adult education is carried out by publicly sponsored academies of music or cultural education at the national or state level. These establishments are grouped together with the central advanced training institutes of some music associations in the following sub-section.
In addition to the institutes and establishments mentioned, advanced and further training is provided by a great variety of other bodies. These include in particular associations and federations in the field of music education, amateur music and church music and also professional associations and federations active in specialised music fields (i.e. popular music, dance and rhythm, music therapy). Advanced and further training is also provided in part by music schools and training centres for the music professions. Courses and seminars held as separate events or as part of festivals and festivities also provide advanced music training. The MIZ Course Information System has a comprehensive range of information on facilities available in the advanced and further training sector and the courses, seminars and studies offered.
Some specialised institutes, notably orchestra academies, operatic studios and academies for early music, have assumed the task of training and advanced training and sometimes pre-secondary level, cocurricular or also pre-professional training. These academies are named together with further advanced and further training institutions such as institutes for contemporary music, jazz and popular music in the sub-section Other Institutes for Training and Further Education.
Initiatives and projects that impart an appreciation of music are becoming an increasingly important part of the German music scene. Under the heading Musical Awareness Projects, programmes are described that have a variety of goals, methods and focus designed to stimulate, foster and broaden interest in music. The projects listed here are generally organised on a national or regional level and have no time limit. The Young Ears Network provides an overview of the diverse musical awareness activities taking place at a local, regional and national level in a comprehensive data base (currently under construction). These range from the activities of orchestras, musical theatres and concert halls, schools of general education and vocational schools, clubs, private initiatives and other bodies and include measures such as sponsorships by orchestras, theme museums, musical festivals or further training schemes. Music competitions, prizes and scholarships with a special focus on encouraging musical activity among children and young people, which often incorporate musical awareness, can be found under the corresponding headings, together with museums dedicated to fostering music awareness.